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Extraction of Natural Phenols from Biomass Pyrolysis Oil
Rajesh N Patel, Ph.D, 07
Supervisor(s): Anuradda Ganesh, Santanu Bandyopadhyay

In view of present status of depletion of petroleum stock and increase in their prices, use of biomass has gained the interest for fuels and chemicals. The pyrolysis is one of the emerging technologies for converting biomass into energy and variety of chemicals through the thermochemical route of biomass. One such chemical, obtained from ligno-cellulosic biomass having potential to replace petro-derived chemicals is ‘phenol’ (phenols, substituted phenols and their derivatives) Sugarcane bagasse and cashew nut shells are two such biomasses abundantly available in India. India is the largest producer of cashews whereas it stands second for sugarcane production in the world. Upon pyrolysis of these biomasses, a liquid known as ‘bio-oil’ is produced along with char and gases, which have fuel applications. The process of recovering phenol rich oil, having up to 72\% phenols and substituted phenols from the pyrolysis oil of bagasse, and extraction of cardanol rich oil (with 85% cardanol concentration) from pyro based Cashew Nut Shell Liquid (CNSL) using supercritical fluid extraction has been established. These oils have industrial importance- specially in resin and laminate industries. The residue available after the oil extraction could be used as a solid fuel. A simple mathematical model has been proposed for the yield prediction from biomass. Same model has been extended for the economic appraisal for the extract obtained from liquid samples. Optimum extraction time for the extracts from both sugarcane bagasse and cashew nut shell pyrolysis liquid has been estimated. The optimum cost and profit analysis through the proposed model gives internal rate of returns of 18% and 26% for extracts obtained from bagasse and cashewnut shell pyrolysis oils respectively.